Tissue engineering has been revolutionized since 2004 from the development of three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting.

Up to now, the cells (eg, liver tissue, heart tissue, skin, cartilage) produced with in vitro 3D bioprinting have largely been centimeter scale, and promising results are obtained. Bioprinting of cells with distinct cell types has been performed in animal studies with a few encouraging results. Four journals dedicated to bioprinting have been established.

The 3d. FAB unit in the University of Lyon (Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1), created in ancient 2015, is a special platform in Europe where biochemists, biologists, engineers, and doctors are analyzing applications for 3D printing in medicine and the life sciences, especially bioprinting.

Its composition was patented. We routinely prepare skin in reproducible 1-cm2 bits, 0.5-cm thick, and bits as big as 200 cm2 on demand. Examination shows that the skin samples are of premium quality . Viability is 100%. Applying this approach skin is obtained in comparison to 45 days for tissue engineering methods that were conventional.

We’ll focus on the Bioprinting of bone. Three kinds of bone grafts for mandibular reconstruction is going to be compared, then and first in vitro after implantation in animals.

3D bioprinting’s characteristic is from which precisely grafts could be produced the ink that’s used. This technique differs from tissue engineering where there is a scaffold created and then full of cells.

On a microscopic scale, 3D bioprinting permits a environment to be made with a structure that is conducive 3D. Cells are dispersed in the hydrogel, which contains the extracellular factors.

On a macroscopic scale, 3D bioprinting’s advantage is that it will permit the creation of autologous grafts that are personalized boost the success of their reconstruction and thus that match the tissue defect.

Grafts created by manufacturing will be quicker decrease and to implant donor site morbidity. The limitation concerning graft size is the ability. Once this limitation is overcome, the creation of “ready-to-implant” organs and autologous free flaps using a vascular pedicle will become possible.